Proactive Acne Treatment Reviews and Detailed Information for Patients
Acne: hormones and inflammation
What is certain is that sex hormones play an important role in acne. For example, adolescence is the period of life when the sex hormones start to be secreted in quantity, these hormones not only cause major changes in the body, such as the appearance of hair, breasts, the change of voice, but also stimulate the development of sebaceous glands and the production of sebum in quantity resulting in hyper seborrhea (so-called oily skin).
Dependent on androgens (male hormones), this secretion is maximum in adolescence and especially in boys. The ovaries and adrenal glands of women also make these male hormones. This explains why the treatment of acne in women sometimes requires the use of contraception or drugs having an effect on male sex hormones.
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Acne: when sebum no longer flows
The second mechanism involved in acne is the closure of the channel through which the sebum flows. It is the superficial cells of the skin, called keratinocytes, which proliferate excessively and find it difficult to eliminate for reasons that are not yet clearly understood.
The other lesions are the consequence of the stagnation of sebum in a confined environment. The tension that develops inside the pilosebaceous follicle, the presence of fat and the closing of the canal, create ideal conditions for the development of a bacterium usually present, but in small quantities, at the bottom of the gland: propionibacterium acnes. This bacterium is able to grow in the absence of oxygen, it is said anaerobic. The bacteria multiply, secrete substances that promote inflammation (redness, pain, heat). It is therefore propionibacterium acnes which is largely responsible for the inflammatory phase of the disease. The reaction to the presence of this abnormal amount of bacteria can cause the rupture of the inflammatory follicle in the deep layer of the skin.
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Moreover, the production of sebum is the first step in a vicious circle that self-perpetuates the disease: the fatty components of sebum (wax, squalenes, triglycerides) directly accelerate the process. Triglycerides when digested by p. acnes, release free fatty acids which themselves promote inflammation. Wax and squalene, for their part, are irritating and stimulate the appearance of comedones.
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